Here’s the second part of the Chemical Reactions posters, this time featuring condensation, hydrolysis, displacement, oxidation, and reduction reactions. Click the image above to enlarge and read the text, or, as previously, I’ve included the text separately in the post below. Print-friendly versions are again available to download at the foot of the page.
A condensation reaction is one in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, with the loss of a small molecule. The small molecule lost is usually water, but not always. It can be considered to be the opposite of hydrolysis reactions, and is an important reaction in the manufacture of many polymers.
Example: CH3NH2 + CH3COOH → CH3NHCOCH3 + H2O
A hydrolysis reaction involves the breaking of chemical bonds by the addition of water to a substance. In some cases, this addition can cause both the substance and the water molecule to split into two parts. There are three main types of hydrolysis: salt, acid, and base. Dissolving sulfuric acid in water is a simple example of hydrolysis.
Example: H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO4–
A displacement reaction is when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another. It usually occurs if the element moving into the compound is more reactive than the element it displaces. Double displacement reactions also occur, where anions and cations of two different molecules swap places, forming two different compounds.
Example: Mg + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + H2
Oxidation reactions are sometimes defined as reactions in which other elements ‘gain’, or form bonds with, oxygen atoms. More generally, they can be defined as reactions in which atoms of an element lose electrons. Oxidation does not occur without an accompanying reduction reaction – these reactions are known as redox reactions.
Example: 4Fe + 3O2 + 2H2O → 2Fe2O3.H2O
Reduction reactions are sometimes defined as chemical reactions in which other elements ‘lose’ oxygen atoms. More generally, they can be defined as reactions in which atoms of an element gain electrons. Reduction does not occur without an accompanying oxidation reaction – these reactions are known as redox reactions.
Example: Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2
Download a zip file with printable versions of the posters by clicking below. Part I was here if you missed it!