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The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics: Climate modelling and understanding complex systems

Infographic on the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics. The winners demonstrated the effects of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere on Earth's surface temperatures, provided mathematical climate models that informed those in use today, and allowed us to identify and compare the impact of human and natural processes on Earth's climate. They also showed that, in complex systems, things which appear random are still subject to complicated hidden rules.
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The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming”, and to Giorgio Parisi “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”

To read about the science behind the prize in more detail, check out the Nobel Prize press release here, or the more detailed scientific background here.